Layer 2 is a collective term for solutions designed to help scale your application by handling transactions off the Ethereum mainnet (layer 1), while taking advantage of the robust decentralized security model of mainnet. Transaction speed suffers when the network is busy which can make the user experience poor for certain types of dapps. And as the network gets busier, gas prices increase as transaction senders aim to outbid each other. This can make using Ethereum very expensive.
Why is layer 2 needed?
- Some use-cases, like blockchain games, make no sense with current transaction times
- It can be unnecessarily expensive to use blockchain applications
- Any updates to scalability should not be at the expense of decentralization or security – layer 2 builds on top of Ethereum
Rollups are solutions that perform transaction execution outside the main Ethereum chain (layer 1), but post transaction data on layer 1. As transaction data is on layer 1, this allows rollups to be secured by layer 1. Inheriting the security properties of layer 1, while performing execution outside of layer 1, is a defining characteristic of rollups.
Three simplified properties of rollups are:
- transaction execution outside layer 1
- data or proof of transactions is on layer 1
- a rollup smart contract in layer 1 that can enforce correct transaction execution on layer 2 by using the transaction data on layer 1
Rollups require “operators” to stake a bond in the rollup contract. This incentivises operators to verify and execute transactions correctly.
- reducing fees for users
- open participation
- fast transaction throughput
There are two types of rollups with different security models:
Zero knowledge rollups: runs computation off-chain and submits a validity proof to the chain
Optimistic rollups: assumes transactions are valid by default and only runs computation, via a fraud proof, in the event of a challenge.
Zero knowledge rollups, also known as ZK-rollups, bundle or “roll up” hundreds of transfers off-chain and generates a cryptographic proof, known as a SNARK (succinct non-interactive argument of knowledge). This is known as a validity proof and is posted on layer 1.
The ZK-rollup smart contract maintains the state of all transfers on layer 2, and this state can only be updated with a validity proof. This means that ZK-rollups only need the validity proof, instead of all transaction data. With a ZK-rollup, validating a block is quicker and cheaper because less data is included.
With a ZK-rollup, there are no delays when moving funds from layer 2 to layer 1 because a validity proof accepted by the ZK-rollup contract has already verified the funds.
zkTube is a layer 2 protocol which uses zero knowledge proof and rollup of ZK rollup to realize low transaction fee and highthroughput transaction between ETH and erc20. ZkTube will become a satisfactory solution for application scenarios with higher requirements on the transaction delivery, timeliness, and high-throughput Dapp.
SecurityThe rollup contract keeps track of its entire history of state roots and the hash of each batch. if anyone discovers that one batch had an incorrect post-state root, they can publish a proof to chain, proving that the batch was computed incorrectly. The contract verifies the proof, and reverts that batch and all batches after it.
Transaction feeGasprice: we can allow users to pay with a fixed range of gaspricesor or even move gaspayment outside the rollup protocol entirely and have transactors pay batch creators for inclusion through a channel.
Gas: we could similarly restrict the total gas to a choice of consecutive powers of two. Alternatively, we could just have a gas limit only at the batch level.
TPS3000+zkTube uses the principle of slicing technology to make the transaction flow between Layer2 faster and meet more financial applications in the field of decentralized finance, dex transactions, and other game applications. zkTube will be a satisfactory solution for application scenarios that have higher requirements in terms of the transaction receipt, timeliness, and high-throughput Dapp.
ZkTube is an ETH Layer 2 capacity expansion solution launched by Australian team zkTube Labs. It was forged based on ZK Rollup architecture. It can not only realize the VISA-level tps of thousands of transactions per second, but can also fully guarantee the security and privacy of capitals on blockchain and Layer 1 accounts. Compared with other similar capacity expansion solutions, it can realize a faster trading speed. These characteristics of zkTube attract much attention, and it has gradually become one of the promising ETH capacity expansion solutions. After the main network of zkTube is launched, it will provide users and merchants of apps established based on zkTube protocol with underlying protocol support services and realize better transfer of apps and contracts on Layer 1. ZkTube aims to build ETH Layer 2 ecosystem.
Low Gas fee and high throughput
ZKTube protocol will set a block size as 12M, a theoretical throughput of 3,000 +TPS, and the cost of single transaction less than 2% of that for the corresponding operation on L1.
Safety guarantee at the level of Ethereum mainnet
On the zkTube network, the massive calculation and data storage operations will be processed on L2. And then, a large number of transactions will be summarized and packed into a single block and the zero-knowledge proof is generated, then all of them will be sent to L1 for verification, which not only improves the transaction processing speed of the whole network, but also ensures security.
Quick Transaction Verification
On the zkTube network, when the block with SNARK proof is sent to L1 for smart contracting and passes the verification, all transactions in this block will be confirmed, which only takes about 10min from submission to the completion of verification. And this time will be increased to seconds as ZKTube network throughput increases in the future.
Transfer payment received in a real time
On the zkTube network, it takes about 10min for the transaction to become the final confirmation state, but this doesn’t affect the normal use of L2. Users only need to adjust the balance contained in the Token leaf node in their account trees when conducting the transfer operation, so the transfer payment between L2 can be received in a real time.
For more information please visit :
Website : https://zktube.io
Telegram : https://t.me/zkTubeProtocol
Twitter : https://twitter.com/zktubeofficial
Discord : https://discord.com/invite/Z6Hdz3Bu25
Wallet testnet : http://rinkeby.zktube.io/wallet
zkTube technical team received Uniswap V3 Hackathon Granted https://gitcoin.co/hackathon/projects/gr9/zktube/